Pre-Registration of .ES Multilingual Domain Names begins 2nd October 2007, until 30th October 2007.
What is IDN?
The Internationalized Domain Name (IDN) is the standard that enables the codification of international characters in the DNS. It is described by RFC3490, RFC3491 and RFC3492. It covers the characters that are not coded according to the ASCII code.
What are multilingual characters and which multilingual characters are allowed?
Multilingual characters are those that are part of the different Spanish languages but are not included in the Anglo-Saxon alphabet. A total of 13 multilingual characters are allowed, which are listed below:
- á à
- é è
- • í ï
- ó ò
- ú ü
If my keyboard does not have the allowed multilingual characters, how can I type them?
It is possible to write the multilingual character by typing Alt + the code:
- á Alt +0225
- é Alt +0233
- í Alt +0237
- ó Alt +0243
- ú Alt +0250
- ü Alt +0252
- ñ Alt +0241
- à Alt + 0224
- è Alt + 0232
- ï Alt + 0239
- ò Alt + 0242
- ç Alt + 0231
- l•l l + Alt + 0183 + l
When will the Register of “.es” domain names with multilingual characters (IDN domains) take effect?
The Multilingual Domain Name (IDN domains) Register will be activated gradually. During the first phase, which will begin on 2 October 2007 at 6:00 am and end at 6:00 pm on 30 October 2007, ONLY the owners of domain names registered prior to 01/06/07 may apply for the multilingual version(s) of those names, in accordance with the assignment rules established in the Instruction on multilingual characters under “.es” (derivation and priority rules).
Afterwards, on a date as yet to be determined, all Users will be able to apply for multilingual .es domain names.
When will it be possible to apply for “.es” domain names with multilingual characters (IDN domains) freely?
The date has not yet been determined. Red.es will notify on its web page, at least fifteen calendar days in advance, the date from which it will be possible to apply freely for .es domain names with multilingual characters.
Is it possible to register domain names with multilingual characters (IDN domains) corresponding to reserved terms?
Yes. However, Red.es will verify that the owner is authorised to register the domain name.
What syntax rules must the multilingual domain names (IDN domains) follow?
They must comply with the syntax rules set forth in Provision Eleven of Order ITC/1552/2005, dated 19 May, which approves the National Plan for domain names under “.es”, including the prohibition in paragraph 1.c, which establishes that the first four characters of the domain name may not be “xn--”.
What is the ASCII code?
ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) is a character code based on the Latin alphabet, as used in modern English and in other Western languages.
What is a domain’s ACE code and how is it converted?
ACE (ASCII Compatible encoding) is the mechanism that makes it possible to incorporate internationalised characters in applications designed to work with ASCII characters only. It is described by RFC3490. The main use of ACE is to incorporate domains with international characters in the DNS.
A conversion is carried out employing algorithms called ToASCII and ToUnicode. These algorithms are applied to the domain name labels that contain non-ASCII characters. For example, the ACE version of “eñe.es” is “xn--ee-zja.es”; the latter is what makes it possible to use “eñe.es” in the DNS. Other examples:
Version without ACE coding == Version with ACE coding
- Miño.es == xn--mio-8ma.es
- Fluvià.es == xn--fluvi-vqa.es
- Nervión.es == xn--nervin-fxa.es
How can I check the ACE coding for my multilingual domain name (IDN domain)?
Red.es will include a utility (converter) on its web page that will enable you to obtain the ACE version of a domain name with multilingual characters.
What is the minimum/maximum length of an “.es” domain name with multilingual characters (IDN domain)?
The minimum and maximum length of a domain name with multilingual characters is:
For second level domains:
- Minimum: 3 characters (ASCII)
- Maximum: 63 characters (ACE)
For third level domains:
- Minimum: 2 characters (ASCII)
- Maximum: 63 characters (ACE)
Is it possible to use multilingual characters in the “.es” DNS server names?
Initial priority has been placed on ensuring the proper functioning of the multilingual domain names; servers are an area that will be taken into consideration in the future.
After registering my multilingual “.es” domain (IDN domain), can I create e-mail accounts through my provider based on the name with multilingual characters?
In general, the use of IDN domain names in e-mail systems is uncommon, since proper functioning depends largely on the manufacturer and configuration of the server and client applications.
User names with multilingual characters are not supported; for example: dpeña@dominios.es.
Will it be possible to view a website based on an “.es” domain name with multilingual characters (IDN domain)?
Not all browsers correctly support the internationalized domain name (IDN) coding. Likewise, depending on the software or its configuration, users will see either the multilingual domain name or the corresponding ACE coding.
The following is a list of browsers compatible with IDN, although the list is not necessarily exhaustive. Please contact the manufacturer if you have any questions or problems.
- Konqueror (from version KDE 3.2, along with the IDN GNU library).
- Microsoft Internet Explorer 7.x. Earlier versions require installing one of the following plugins:
- i-Nav TM, by Verisign, or
- EchIDNA from the IDN-OSS open source project
- Microsoft Internet Explorer 7.
- Mozilla 1.5 or higher
- Mozilla Firefox 1.0.7 or higher
- Netscape 7.1 or higher
- Opera 7.2 or higher
- Safari 1.2 or higher (for Mac OS X 10.3).
- OmniWeb 5 or higher.
- Epiphany 1.2.2 or higher.
- Galeon 1.3.14 or higher.
- Mozilla Camino 0.7 or higher.
- AmigaOS AWeb 3.5 or higher.
How can I determine whether or not my browser supports multilingual domain names (IDN domain)?
Red.es maintains a test domain to check whether your browser supports multilingual characters. To check, click the following link: http://eñe.es. If you reach a page with information on multilingual domain names, your browser can deal with multilingual domain names.
What are the derivation rules during the staggered registration of domains with multilingual characters?
As established in the Instruction on multilingual characters under “.es”, in provision Three, Section 3.1, the derivation rules are the following:
(i) The letter “a” may be replaced by the characters “á” and “à”.
(ii) The letter “e” may be replaced by the characters “é” and “è”.
(iii) The letter “i” may be replaced by the characters “í” and “ï”.
(iv) The letter “o” may be replaced by the characters “ó” and “ò”.
(v) The letter “u” may be replaced by the characters “ú” and “ü”.
(vi) The letter combinations “n”, “nh”, “ni”, “nn”, “ny”, “gn” may be replaced by the character “ñ”.
(vii) The letter “c” and “s” may be replaced by the character “ç”.
(viii) The letter “l” and the combination “ll” may be replaced by the character “?l”.
How are the applications received during the staggered registration phase processed?
As established in the Instruction on multilingual characters under “.es”, in provision Three, Section 3.2, the priority rules are the following:
- The domain name applications submitted during the staggered registration under derivation rules (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) and (v), or any combination thereof, are approved automatically in accordance with the rules of the general procedure for registering domain names under “.es”.
- Domain name applications submitted during the staggered registration period under rules (vi), (vii) and (viii), any combination thereof, or of these and any of the derivation rules mentioned in paragraph a) above will be filed and put on hold and will not be processed until after the staggered registration phase is over.
How are the applications received under derivation rules vi, vii, viii, and any combination thereof, resolved?
- Domain names for which there is just one application will be assigned according to the general procedure for “.es” domain name registration.
- Domain names for which there are different applications from two or more legitimate beneficiaries will be assigned in the following order:
Priority will be given firstly to:
- Public administrations.
- Public entities.
- Accredited diplomatic offices in Spain.
- International organisations in which Spain is a member or entities resulting from international agreements or conventions signed by Spain.
Priority will be given secondly to:
- Foundations, associations and commercial enterprises, for domain names corresponding to their trade names.
- Owners of commercial names, registered trademarks, designations of origin or other industrial property rights protected in Spain, for the domain names corresponding to those rights.
- Individuals, for domain names corresponding to their surnames or a combination of their name and surnames.
Priority will be given thirdly to:
- All other applications received from owners not covered in the sections above.
The domain name shall be assigned to the applicant in the group with the highest priority. If there is more than one applicant in that group, it will be assigned by drawing lots.